The main noun declensions are set out on the Grammar tables page, but there are several minor declensions. They are "minor" in terms of the number of nouns within each class, but the many of the nouns themselves are very common in use.

u declensionEdit

The u declension includes masculine and feminine nouns but no neuter nouns. The genders are declined identically. It includes nouns ending -u and a few which do not (though they might have had it in a lost, early form of proto-English).

Nouns with -uEdit

Singular Plural
Nom. sunu suna
Acc. sunu suna
Gen. suna suna
Dat. suna sunum

Nouns without -uEdit

Singular Plural
Nom. hand handa
Acc. hand handa
Gen. handa handa
Dat. handa handum



  • sunu (son), M
  • wudu (wood) M
  • duru (door) F
  • hand (hand) F
  • flor (floor) F

Abstract nouns with -u / -oEdit

All these are abstract, feminine nouns. They rarely have plurals.

Singular Plural
Nom. strengþu -
Acc. strengþu -
Gen. strengþe -
Dat. strengþe -



  • ieldu
  • menigu
  • strengþu
  • bieldo

Umlaut forms generallyEdit

Some nouns undergo a change in the vowel, on the lines on normal Old English vowel mutation. Several of these survive into Modern English, for example footfeet, mousemice. This is a common Germanic trait, rationalised in Modern German whereby the change in the vowel is represented by adding an umlaut to the vowel. In Old English the vowel is simply changed.

There are a few classes of these umlaut forms, of which the first below is the commonest. In every case, the nominative and accusative forms are identical.

Umlaut forms – 1; (fot)Edit

Masculine nouns.

Singular Plural
Nom. fot fet
Acc. fot fet
Gen. fotes fota
Dat. fet fotum



  • mann
  • toþ

Umlaut forms – 2; (burg)Edit

Feminine nouns. The example given below is the usual one, but atypical of the class in one respect: Burg (or in its Mercian dialect form burh) also undergoes a change in the final consonant, from a hard g to a soft ig

Variant forms are recorded in this declension.

Singular Plural
Nom. burg byrig
Acc. burg byrig
Gen. byrig
Dat. byrig burgum



  • boc – bec
  • gos – ges
  • mus – mys


Niht usually follows the burg pattern but without changing its vowel, or sometimes takes the regular feminine endings of the pattern in which the accusative is the same as the nominative. For the former the pattern is:

Singular Plural
Nom. niht niht
Acc. niht niht
Gen. niht
Dat. niht nihtum

Family relationship nounsEdit

Family relationship words. Both masculine and feminine nouns are in this class, but their forms word to word may differ and different usage appears in different dialects and in different ages. The examples below are the more common usages.


Singular Plural
Nom. fæder fæderas
Acc. fæder fæderas
Gen. fæder
Dat. fæder fæderum


Singular Plural
Nom. broþor broþor
Acc. broþor broþor
Gen. broþor broþra
Dat. breþer broþrum


Singular Plural
Nom. sweostor sweostor
Acc. sweostor sweostor
Gen. sweostor sweostra
Dat. sweostor sweostrum

Present participle nounsEdit

Nouns ending in -end are formed from present participles and these behave like adjectives declined in the strong form. These are masculine

Singular Plural
Nom. buend buend
Acc. buend buend
Gen. buendes buendra
Dat. buende buendum

Latin namesEdit

Writers did not have a consistent approach to Latin names. A Latin name typically has an ending which mutates with declension in Latin, and the two main approaches appear to be:

  • Decline the name with its native Latin forms, as if writing in Latin
  • Use Englisc endings in place of the Latin one in oblique cases.

Thus the Persian King Cyrus is Cyrus in the nominative, but we also have "In Cyres dagum".

Latin also provides a number of place-names ending in -ia (which are feminine in Latin). Rather than treating these as if they were Englisc strong Masculine nouns like nama, usually they are treated as feminine, with the -ia changed to -ie in oblique cases.

There are no plurals in names of course.