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Old English grammar tables


Nouns Edit

Strong Edit

Singular (anfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

stan

lar

giefu

hus

scip

Acc.

stan

lare

giefe

hus

scip

Gen.

stanes

lare

giefe

huses

scipes

Dat.

stane

lare

giefe

huse

scipe

Plural (manigfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

stanas

lara / lare

giefa / giefe

hus

scipu

Acc.

stanas

lara / lare

giefa / giefe

hus

scipu

Gen.

stana

lara / larena

giefa / giefena

husa

scipa

Dat.

stanum

larum

giefum

husum

scipum


Weak Edit

Singular (anfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

nama

sunne

eage

Acc.

naman

sunnan

eagan

Gen.

naman

sunnan

eagan

Dat.

naman

sunnan

eagan

Plural (manigfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

naman

sunnan

eagan

Acc.

naman

sunnan

eagan

Gen.

namena

sunnena

eagena

Dat.

namum

sunnum

eagum


There are many masculine and feminine nouns in this "weak" class, encompasing essentially any masculine noun ending "-a" (boda, cnapa, flota, mona, oxa, steorra and many more) and feminine nouns ending "-e" (cirice, hlæfdige, tunge, wise and so forth). Interestingly, that means eorþe, mona, sunne and steorra are all weak nouns.

Masculine weak nouns ending "-o" are leo, tweo.

There are just neuter nouns known in this class: eage, eare.

Minor Declensions Edit

(See Minor noun declensions)

Adjectives Edit

Each adjective has two declensions, depending on whether the noun is definite or indefinite:

    • Strong:
    generally or where we would have "a", or with a number, for example:
    • micel scip (a big ship)
    • miclu scipu (big ships)
    • feower miclu scipu (four big ships)
    • Weak:
    with a definite article, demonstrative pronoun, possessive or in certain other situations, so with se, seo, þæt, þa; þes, þeos, þis, þas; min, þin, his, hiere etc
For example:
    • þæt micle scip (the big ship)
    • þa miclan scipu (these big ships)
    • urum miclan scipu (our big ships)

In poetry, the weak form appears where such a pronoun is implied, for example in Deor:

swoncre [strong] seonobende on syllan [weak] monn ("supple sinew-bonds on [the] better man")

Strong (indefinite) Edit

Used where MnE would have "a" or "an", and generally in any case which is not weak (see below)

There are two principal forms, one of which has a "u" in the feminine nom. singular and the neuter nom./acc. plural, and the other which does not. Generally the "u" form is with single, short vowels and the non-"u" form with diphthongs and long vowels, and adjectives ending in "e" or "u". Adjectives ending "lic" and "sum" have the "u" form.

Singular (anfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

cwic

god

cwicu

god

cwic

god

Acc.

cwicne

godne

cwice

gode

cwic

god

Gen.

cwices

godes

cwicre

godre

cwices

godes

Dat.

cwicum

godum

cwicre

godre

cwicum

godum

Plural (manigfeald) Edit

The dative and genitive plurals do not change with gender, and are the same as the weak forms (see below).

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

cwice

gode

cwica

goda

cwicu

god

Acc.

cwice

gode

cwica

goda

cwicu

god

Gen.

cwicra

godra

cwicra

godra

cwicra

godra

Dat.

cwicum

godum

cwicum

godum

cwicum

godum


Weak (definite) Edit

Used with "se" (etc), "þes" (etc), "min" and other possessives and certain other situations.

Singular (anfeald) Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

cwica

goda

cwice

gode

cwice

gode

Acc.

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

cwice

gode

Gen.

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

Dat.

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

cwicum

godum

Plural (manigfeald) Edit

The plurals do not change with gender. The dative and genitive plurals are the same as the strong forms (see above).

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom.

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

Acc.

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

cwican

godan

Gen.

cwicra

godra

cwicra

godra

cwicra

godra

Dat.

cwicum

godum

cwicum

godum

cwicum

godum

Demonstrative pronouns Edit

ThatEdit

Masc Fem Neut
Singular
Nom se seo þæt
Acc þone þa þæt
Gen þæs þære þæs
Dat þæm þære þæm
Inst þy þære þy
Plural
Nom þa
Acc þa
Gen þara
Dat þæm

ThisEdit

. Masc Fem Neut
. Singular
Nom þes þeos þis
Acc þisne þas þis
Gen þisses þisse / þisre þisses
Dat þissum þisse / þisre þissum
Inst þys þisse þys
. Plural
Nom þas
Acc þas
Gen þissa / þisra
Dat þissum

What / WhoEdit

. Masc Fem Neut
Nom hwa hwa hwæt
Acc hwone hwa hwæt
Gen hwæs hwæs hwæs
Dat hwæm hwæm hwæm
Inst x x hwy /
hwon

Pronouns Edit

Singular Edit

1st 2nd 3rd

Nom

ic þu he heo hit

Acc

mec / me þec / þe hine hie hit

Gen

min þin his hiere his

Dat

me þe him hiere him

Dual Edit

1st 2nd 3rd
Nom wit git
Acc unc / uncet inc / incet
Gen uncer incer
Dat unc inc

Plural Edit

1st 2nd 3rd
Nom we ge hie
Acc us eow hie
Gen ure eower hiera
Dat us eow him


Min / Þin Edit

Decline like strong adjectives

Singular Edit

Masc Fem Neut
Nom min
þin
min
þin
min
þin
Acc minne
þinne
mine
þine
min
þin
Gen mines
þines
mine
þine
mines
þines
Dat minum
þinum
minre
þinre
minum
þinum

Plural Edit

(Also with dual)

Masc Fem Neut
Nom mine
þine
mina
þina
min
þin
Acc mine
þine
mina
þina
min
þin
Gen minra
þinra
minra
þinra
minra
þinra
Dat minum
þinum
minum
þinum
minum
þinum

Prepositions (foresetnessa)Edit

(See Prepositions.)

A preposition is followed by a noun either in the accusative or the dative. As in German, some prepositions always have the accusative or always the dative. Others have:

  • the accusative where motion is implied
  • the dative otherwise
For example in and ofer take the dative when they mean "in" and "above" but the accusative when they mean "into" and "over" (with motion).

A few can take the genitive in a specific circumstance.

Which preposition takes which case is not always the same in Englisc as in German. They are:

Accusative Accusative or dative Dative Genitive (and circs)
  • fore
  • geond
  • ongean
  • þurh
  • wiþ
  • ymbe
  • in
  • ofer
  • on
  • under
  • æfter
  • ær
  • æt
  • be
  • betweonan
  • betwux
  • binnan
  • butan
  • for
  • fram
  • mid
  • of
  • to
  • to (of a purpose)
  • wiþ (towards)

NumbersEdit

(See Numbers.)

Verbs Edit

Present tense Edit

Past tense Edit

Weak Edit

Strong Edit

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