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Geography:

Landscape Landscipe Edit

  • Land: land (n)
  • Creek: crecoa (m), wic (n)
  • Glacier: none known; suggest isflod (m)
  • Narrow piece of land: gara (m)
  • Plain: wong (m)
  • River: ea (f), flod (m)
  • Riverbank: ofer (m), eastæþ (n), rand (m)
  • Rock: clud (m), tor (m)
  • Stream: burna (m), burn (f), stream (m), bec (m)
  • Territory, piece of land: landscipe (m)
  • Territory ruled: landrice '(n)
  • Volcano: none known:Alfred's OE Orosius does mention two volcanic eruptions but without a name for "volcano"; suggest fyrbeorg (f) (suggested by Icelandic eldfjall)

Hills and dales Edit

Placename evidence suggests different words tend to represent differently shaped features

  • Hill: beorg (m), dun (f), hyll (m / f), hlæw (m, n), clud (m)
  • Hill (heel shaped): hoh (m)
  • Mountain-brow: beorghleoþ (n)
  • Ridge: hrycg (m)
  • Rising ground: hlinc (m)
  • Slope: hliþ (n)
    • Downward slope: blip (n)
  • Summit: topp (m)
  • Valley: denu (f), cumb (m), dæl (m)

Islands and the Seacoast Iega and Særima Edit

  • Archipelago: none known: try iegflocc (m)
  • Beach: strand (m)
  • Coast: rima (m), sægemære (n)
  • Cove: cofa (m)
  • Harbour: hæfen (m), hyþ (f)
  • Headland: næss (m), næsse (f)
  • Island: ieg, iegland (also igland, ealond etc)
  • Islet: igeoþ (m) (other spellings: igoþ, iggoþ etc)
  • Isthmus: none known but heals ('neck') is nearest in use
  • Port: hyþ (f)
  • Promonary: steort (m) (literally 'tail'), næss (m)
  • Riverbank, shore: staþe (n) , stæþ(n)
  • Rock: clud (m)
  • Seacliff: ecgclif (n)
  • Shore, Riverbank: stæþ (m), staþe (n)

Water Wæterscipe Edit

  • Bay: byht, biht, wæl (m)
  • Estuary: muþa (m), fleot (m)
  • Iceberg: none known; suggest isdun (f) or isbeorg (m)
  • Inlet (tidal): fleot (m)
  • Lake: mere (m), luh (n), wæterscipe (m)
  • Sea: sæ (m, f), brimu (f), holm (m), wæg (m) ('wave')
  • Sound: nothing specific
  • Strait: nearunes (f)

Travel and exploration Edit

Navigation Edit

  • East: east, eastweard
  • North: norþ, norþweard
  • South: suþ, suþweard
  • West: west, westweard
  • Due north: norþrihte
  • Northeast: norþeast
  • Northwest: norþwest
  • Southeast: suþeast
  • Southwest: suþwest
  • to the north of: be norþan (with dat.)
  • Larboard: bæcbord
  • Starboard: steorbord
  • Overseas: ofersæ

Nouns Edit

  • Discovery: afundennis, awregennes, onwrigennes, gemetnes etc (f)
  • Expedition: fær (f), færeld (n), faru (f)
  • Ship: scip (n)

Verbs Edit

  • Explore: rasian (and many others)
  • Travel: faran
  • Discover: afindan
  • Land: lendan
  • Leave on the ebbtide: beebbian
  • Sail: seglan
  • Survey: No exact equivalent. Suggest besceawian or geondsceawian
  • Voyage: for (f), siþ (m), sæfor, sæsiþ, scipbroc

Measurement Edit

  • Area: closest seems to be stow (m)
  • Ell: eln (f)
  • Foot: fot (m)
  • Furlong: furlang (n)
  • Hide: hid (f)
  • Inch: ynce (m)
  • Mile: mil (f)
  • Yard: gyrd (f)

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