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Architecture of the Early Mediaeval period is found the length and breadth of the land, but needs finding. This page lists some examples

No secular buildings remain standing from the Anglo-Saxon period, so all abiding work is found in churches. A few foundations of apparently secular buildings remain. For earthworks and similar, see Earthworks.

Anglo-Saxon period buildings and structures Edit


Anglesey Edit

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  • Penmon Welsh stone cross ~1000 in church


Angus Edit

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  • Brechin: Cathedral
    • Sculpture of Northumbrian type ~880
    • Round tower dated 990-1012
  • Restenneth: Priory church argued to be dated ~1040.


Argyll Edit

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  • Iona: The famous monastery island which King Oswald and many others visited. The buildings are mediaeval, the Abbey restored in the 19th and 20th centuries. Some crosses date to 950-1000, and 9th-10th century Scottish and Norse kings' burials (Iona Community)
  • Kildalton (Isle of Islay): the Kildalton Cross, ~950-1000
  • Keills (Kintyre): Stone cross ~1000


Bedfordshire Edit

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Berkshire Edit

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  • Boxford: St Andrew's: Much of the chancel. The window in the north wall of the chancel is the oldest working window in Britain, dated to the tenth or early eleventh century.[1]
  • Wickham: St Swithin - tower ~1020


Buckinghamshire Edit

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Cambridgeshire Edit

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Cheshire Edit

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Cornwall Edit

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  • Cardinham: St Meubred - Interlaced cross 9th century near west door[?] and carved stone in the churchyard
  • Mawgan: Lanherne House has a tenth century figure-carved cross by its entrance
  • Mylor: St Melorus - Westwelsh / English 9th century cross in churchyard
  • Perranzabuloe: St Piran-in-Sabulo - Westwelsh / Irish chapel ~500-700
  • Sancreed: St Sancredus - two West Welsh or English 10th century crosses in churchyard


Cumberland Edit

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  • Aspatria: St Kentigern - Hogsback stones and fragments
  • Beckermet: St Bridget Old Church - churchyard has two crosses ~1000
  • Bewcastle: St Cuthbert's - The Bewcastle Cross (of which the shaft remains) ~700, a pair with the Ruthwell Cross, apparently commemorating Ealhfrith King of Deira (655-670?)
  • Dacre: St Andrew’s - The "Dacre Bears" (possibly Norse), two crosses ~900-950
  • Gosforth: St Mary's - [The Gosforth Cross http://archaeology.eu.com/vikings/gosforth/] 15 feet tall ~980, and various carved stones
  • Irton: St Paul's - cross perhaps tenth century
  • Penrith: St Andrew - 2 crosses and hogsback tombs


Derbyshire Edit

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Devon Edit

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  • Colyton: St Andrew - remains of a cross-shaft
  • Dolton: St Edmund's font ~800-1000, carved from two earlier cross shafts


Dorset Edit

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  • Canford Magna: Parish Church - chancel ~1000, remains of crosses
  • Sherborne: Sherborne Abbey - an Anglo-Saxon doorway in the north-west of the church. (Otherwise the church is a soaring Gothic building, built ont a Norman Romanesque crossing.)
  • Wareham:
    • St Martins - chancel window and long-and-short work
    • St Mary - some inscribed stones and minor work; described as "a Saxon church with a plain Victorian nave"
  • Winterbourne Steepleton: St Michael and All Angels - "essentially Saxon" largely rebuilt by the Normans, some nave masonry and quoins. Outside a relief of a flying angel


Dumfriesshire Edit

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Durham Edit

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  • Billingham: St Cuthbert's - tower and nave perhaps late 10th century
  • Durham: Cathedral - remarkable Norman cathedral contains the grave of St Cuthbert and many items buried with him, retrieved from his tomb are on display
  • Escomb: The Saxon Church (~670) - remarkable, almost unaltered, early Saxon church
  • Jarrow:
    • St Paul ~684, where Bede lived and died
    • Monastery remains
  • Monkwearmouth: St Peter ~670, part of the joint monastery of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow
  • Norton: St Mary the Virgin - tower and transepts ~990


Essex Edit

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  • Bradwell-on-Sea: St Peter-on-the-Wall (a Roman building adapted in 654)
  • Chickney: St Mary's - "a remarkable survival of a largely unaltered Saxon building" nave and windows
  • Colchester: Holy Trinity - West tower and a doorway
  • Greensted juxta Ongar: St Andrew Unique construction using vertically split logs (the oldest wooden church in Britain)
  • Hadstock: St Botolph - Lower parts ~1050
  • Inworth: All Saints, of arguable - Anglo-Saxon or early Norman
  • Strethall: St Mary The Virgin Nave and chancel arch ~1060


Gloucestershire Edit

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  • Winstone: St Bartholomew, - tower late Anglo-Saxon, and nave of the Anglo-Norman overlap


Hampshire Edit

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  • Boarhunt: St Nicholas - almost complete, ~1060
  • Breamore: St Mary
  • Romsey: Romsey Abbey (St Mary and St Ethelflaeda) (some minor detail only)
  • Titchfield: St Peter's - porch ~800
  • Warblington: St Bartholomew - Tower and door openings
  • Winchester: Winchester Cathedral, but of the Old Minster (648) only foundations remain, marked out on the floor)


Hertfordshire Edit

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  • Northchurch, Berkhamsted: St Mary - foundations, poss some details
  • Reed: St Mary (some detail only)
  • St Albans:
    • St Albans Cathedral is Norman, but with reused Anglo-Saxon ballusters: shafts up in the triforium (first floor gallery) of the North and South Transepts, possibly from the minster built by Offa
    • St Michael, St Michael's Street, complete nave and chancel walls ~950, with surviving windows displayed; constructed from Roman brick from Verulamium, (like the Cathedral's tower). Norman aisles added ~1110 and Norman romanesque arches now pierce the chancel walls; also other later changes.
  • Westmill: St Mary the Virgin (Nave and pillars)


Huntingdonshire Edit

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  • Great Paxton: Holy Trinity - Rare Anglo-Danish arched crossing and aisled nave ~1020


Kent Edit

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  • Canterbury:
    • St Martin's (7th C nave with parts of poss earlier origin, described as the oldest church in the English speaking world)
    • St Augustine's Abbey remains
    • St Mary Northgate
    • St Peter and St Paul [?]
  • Dover: St Mary in Castro (within the grounds of Dover Castle)
  • Lydd: All Saints - Windows and arches 7th Century but debate remains on exact age
  • Lyminge: Remains of St Æþelburg's minster ~655 and walling and windows from ~960
  • Minster-in-Sheppey: Minster Abbey - part of the walls incorporate walls of Queen Sæxburg’s nunnery ~670
  • Rochester: Rochester Cathedral: All Norman, but the foundations of the old cathedral are buried beneath and the position of the west door is marked out on the floor


Lancashire Edit

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  • Heysham:
    • St Patrick's Chapel - remains and rock-cut tombs
    • St Peter's - south and west doors, west window etc (10th / 11th century), 10th century hogsback tomb, early cross shaft in the churchyard, sandstone archway in the churchyard (in the church until Victorian restoration)
  • Whalley: St Mary and All Saints churchyard has three Anglo-Saxon crosses


Leicestershire Edit

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  • Breedon-on-the-Hill: Breedon Priory - sculpture (late eighth-century)


Lincolnshire Edit

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  • Barton-on-Humber: St Peter's
  • Hough on the Hill: All Saints - Part of tower (round tower), semicircular stair projection, part of nave etc ~1030
  • Lincoln:
    • City wall not dated as Anglo-Saxon but Roman, so known and used in the period
    • St Benedict - late Anglo-Saxon tower mentioned in some sources - unverified
    • St Peter-at-Gowts - late Anglo-Saxon tower
    • St Mary-le-Wigford - late Anglo-Saxon tower and a early inscribed stone
  • Little Bytham: St Medard's and St Gildard's church (some AS long and short work around a door)
  • Stow: Stow Minster (~1040 with a small part surviving from 975)
  • Waythe: St Martin's - Central tower ~1040 in Victorian church


Middlesex Edit

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  • City of London: All Hallows by the Tower (London's oldest church) - Anglo-Saxon arch (using Roman tiles), part of a cross-head (with Englisc inscription) and various artefacts
  • Stepney: St Dunstan - Carving of the Crucifixion in south aisle poss ~1020
  • Westminster: Westminster Abbey (The Collegiate Church of St Peter) - Founded and first built by King Edward the Confessor, though little of the King's work remains


Morayshire Edit

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  • Forres: "Sueno's Stone" - carved cross-shaft described as "Pictish" but late, perhaps 9th or 10th century


Norfolk Edit

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  • East Lexham: St Andrew (the tower)
  • Forncett St Peter: St Peter's ~1020-1060
  • Great Dunham: St Andrew ~1040
  • Haddiscoe: St Mary
  • Kirby Cane: All Saints - round tower and other parts ~1020
  • North Elmham: Cathedral site, though ruins argued as either ~1000 or early Norman
  • Norwich: St Mary Coslany (off Oak Street) - Anglo-Saxon / Danish round tower ~1020, with triangular bell openings
  • Tasburgh: St Mary's - round tower ~1020-1060
  • Whissonsett: St Mary's churchyard the Whissonsett Cross ~900


Northamptonshire Edit

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Northumberland Edit

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  • Bolam: St Andrew - tower ~1050
  • Bywell: St Andrews - tower, 55 feet high
  • Corbridge: St Andrew's Church - remarkable early Saxon church incorporating a relocated Roman arch
  • Heddon-on-the-Wall: St Andrews - some quoins ~1020-1050
  • Hexham: Hexham Abbey crypt (674; St Wilfred) complete (reusing Roman stone), a stone friþstol (originally the Bishop's seat), Bishop Acca's monument and several carved stone fragments including a grave cover
  • Lindisfarne: St Mary the Virgin - Early Saxon chancel wall and elements
  • Ovingham: St. Mary the Virgin - tower and cross fragments
  • Rothbury: Intricately carved cross base with Biblical scenes, now forming the base for the font
  • Warden: St Michael and All Angels, - tower with tower arch ~1050
  • Whittingham: St Bartholomew's - lower parts of tower, doorway, stonework in the north aisle wall, nave quoins ~1020


Orkney Edit

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  • Brough of Birsay:
    • Ruins of Norse cathedral ~1050
    • Traces of Norse village ~1000-1100, (attrib. to Earl Þorfinn)
  • Westness: Norse lady's grave ~850


Oxfordshire Edit

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  • Langford: St Matthew - tower and arch ~1050 and sculpture
  • North Leigh: Church ruins with Anglo-Saxon tower
  • Oxford: St Michael at the Northgate (the tower is ~1040)


Perthshire Edit

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  • Abernethy: [2] Round tower dated 1050-1060


Renfrewshire Edit

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  • Inchinnan: Churchyard has crosses and cross slab dated perhaps eighth to tenth centuries


Shropshire Edit

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  • Barrow: St Giles - chancel etc ~ 1040-1050
  • Diddlebury: St Peter - Nave, window & door, herringbone wall ~1060
  • Stanton Lacy: St Peter - part of wall has long-and-short work etc ~1050


Suffolk Edit

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  • South Elmham Cross: minster church ruins (St Cross) in woodland ~950
  • Thorington: St Peter, round tower ~1050
  • West Stowe: archaeological site now with a reconstructed early period village


Sussex Edit

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Warwickshire Edit

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Westmorland Edit

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  • Heversham: St Peter's - cross in churchyard ~900
  • Morland: St Lawrence - tower ~1060 (the only remaining Anglo-Saxon building in Westmorland)


Wigtownshire Edit

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  • Chapel Finian near Port William: Chapel Finian - remains of oval monastic enclosure ~1000
  • Chapel in the Rocks: chapel remains, with a cave serving as chancel - unknown date
  • Kirkmadrine: inscribed stones in church walls of unknown date
  • St Ninian's Cave: cave chapel with inscribed crosses - early
  • Whithorn]: Abbey misc remains from perhaps 400 - 900, the later stones with Northumbrian pattern


Wiltshire Edit

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  • Bradford on Avon: St Laurence - complete church
  • Britford: St Peter - nave and some ornamented features ~800 and later
  • Netheravon: All Saints - tower and herringbone masonry ~ 1060
  • Ramsbury: Holy Cross - collection of shafts and gravestones in church


Yorkshire Edit

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York Edit

  • York:
    • The Anglian Tower (within the city wall near the Ouse bridge): Lower storey poss dated ~630. If so, it is the only remaining substantial piece of secular Anglo-Saxon architecture.
    • Mickelgate: St Mary Bishophill - church with lower part of tower ~8th or 9th century, upper parts with herringbone walling and bell openings ~1020-60. Tower arch possibly serving as the nave

East Riding Edit

  • Nunburnholme: St James - cross in churchyard ~1000
  • Skipwith: St Helen - West tower and well-kept tower arch ~1040

North Riding Edit

  • Brompton-in-Allertonshire: St Thomas' - largest collection of hogsback sculptures in Britain and other sculpture, 2 crosses ~800-900
  • Hackness: St Peter's - chancel arch ~1030,cross fragments, some with runic inscriptions
  • Hovingham: All Saints - tower and west door ~1060, sculpted stone ~800
  • Kirkdale: St Gregory's Minster - tower, arch and chancel arch, sundial, ~1055
  • Kirk Hammerton: St John The Baptist picture almost complete ~1050
  • Masham: St Mary the Virgin - cross shaft in churchyard

West Riding Edit

  • Bardsey: All Hallows - Tower
  • Collingham: St Oswald - some sculpture including Apostles Cross ~800
  • Dewsbury: All Saints (Dewsbury Minster)- parts of cross ~820 and misc sculpture
  • Ledsham: All Saints - Major church with two-storey west porch, nave and other remains, ~800-1050, with Norman and later additions
  • Marton-in-Craven: St Peter carved cross ~1050. Some argue that the church is Anglo-Saxon
  • Ripon: Ripon Cathedral St Wilfred's crypt (~670)


Outside links Edit

Anglo-Saxon sites - Trinity College, Cambridge

Anglo-Saxon Churches

Early English Architecture thanks to Octavia Randolph

Anglo-Saxon Architecture - Britain Express

Pictures Edit

"Anglo-Saxon architecture" - pictures on WikiMedia Commons

Books Edit

  • Anglo-Saxon Architecture H M Taylor and Joan Taylor, Cambridge University Press (3 volumes)
  • The Buildings of Britain: Anglo-Saxon and Norman ed. Alistair Service ISBN 009150130X

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